DNA TESTING
Sometimes Facts Get in the Way of Truth
    
(People Classified as Native Americans Arrived in 3 Migrations to the Americas)
  
  
The McDonald’s hamburger has grilled onions, pickles, catsup, and mustard.

The Burger King’s hamburger is grilled and has pickles, catsup, and mustard.

The Wendy’s hamburger has lettuce, tomato, onions, catsup, and mustard.

After given these options, how does the patron determine which fast food restaurant serves an authentic hamburger if each restaurant serves different varieties of the same sandwich and calls it a HAMBURGER? That is because differences, oddities, or wonders occur not only in the real world but inconsistencies and differences occur genetically and archaeologically with DNA Testing.

DNA Tests do not determine race.  Different reference populations and algorithms are used to create a biogeographical estimate, which can result in varying estimates. Labels are used to describe a population. For example, what does “Scandinavian” or “Central European” really mean?  What does East Asia or West Asia really mean?  What does African and European mean when a person receives results from a DNA Test?

  • Tests trace only a few of your ancestors and a small portion of DNA.
  • DNA Tests may report false negatives or positives.
  • DNA Tests have limited sample databases meaning results are subject to misinterpretations.
  • A person likely has relatives in many unstudied groups.
  • No clear connections exist between DNA and racial/ethnic identity.
  • DNA Tests cannot determine exactly where your ancestors lived or what ethnic identity they held.

You cannot look at DNA and read it like a book or a map of a journey without supporting historical evidence. Your DNA contains an enormous amount of genetic information, but most of the information collected from it is about the genetic history of a whole population in a region and not from individual family trees.

DNA is an assortment of genetic sequences that have been inherited from many different ancestors. You double your number of ancestors with every generation, because everyone has two parents. Going back only 10 generations (between 200 and 300 years) in your genealogy. You end up with 1,024 ancestors.

  • Y chromosome DNA, which is inherited along the male line and only found in men.
  • Mitochondrial DNA, which is inherited along the female line and found in both men and women.
  • Autosomal DNA, which can come from any ancestor and makes up 98% of your DNA.


REGIONAL AND HISTORICAL VARIATIONS
Europe the Scapegoat

According to geneticists, using skin color, hair, facial features, and other physical traits, can be used to distinguish East Asians from South Asians and Africans from Europeans. Broad racial categories appear to be founded on genuine biological differences between people from different geographical regions. These differences define a set of natural human groups, the product of the last 70,000 years or so when modern humans emerged from Africa to colonize other continents, acquiring distinct physical traits as they adapted to new environments.

Depending on which way something is presented, the reader will look at an event differently.  Migration and adaptation become the key elements in DNA.  In the following example, Brown people have become white?

The research, published in Science, found that East African populations have “as much as 25% Eurasian ancestry”.  Eurasia is connected with Africa through a narrow strip of land near the Gulf of Suez where Africans migrated to Eurasia.  The countries in Eurasia are Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Russia, Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. 

East African populations currently have 25% Eurasian ancestry. So, if you look at that statistic, you immediately think Africans have 25% Eurasian, but if you turn it around and say:

Eurasians currently have 25% African Ancestry?  If you read the first statement, you think that people from East Africa are 25% White/European. If you read the second statement, you probably would dispute that Eurasians are 25% Black/African even though migration and adaptation patterns were like a two-way street and part of history.

Europe is the Scapegoat for African Blood and the R1b Haplogroup. Haplogroup R1b (R-M343) is also known as Hg1 and Eu18 and a human Y-chromosome haplogroup.  It is the most frequently occurring paternal lineage in Western Europe, as well as some parts of Russia (e.g. the Bashkir minority) and Central Africa (e.g. Chad and Cameroon). The clade is present at lower frequencies throughout Eastern Europe, Western Asia, as well as parts of North Africa and Central Asia where Black folk live.

DNA Tests cluster individuals and correlate with geographic origin or ancestry.  Forensic databases in the US are organized according to traditional racial and ethnic categories (e.g., African-American, European-American, Hispanic).

It should be noted that Sub-Saharan Africa has the greatest genetic diversity.  Sub-Saharan Africa is where human evolution occurred. For most of human history, it was also the region with the largest human population. Genetic classifications of races outside of Sub-Saharan Africa are simply subsets of Sub-Saharan African diversity.

Ancestry, 23andme, and have another issue of limited and inconsistent data. Ancestry.com divides the world into 26 genetic regions and uses just 115 samples to create the representative of each region—a very small sample size.  Different companies place different weight on samples, which come from burial grounds, modern isolated communities, and academically published data, like the Human Genome Diversity Project. For the consumer, this means if you don’t like your heritage results, try a different company. You’ll get a completely different breakdown.

DNA Ancestry Tests Are Worthless for Historical Genealogy Searches. Each person has only one ancestral lineage for mtDNA, and each man has one for Y chromosome DNA; each type of DNA is passed down through generations as an individual unit. Autosomal DNA, however, is made up of thousands of sections of DNA, each with its own history.

According to historical research, most Britons are descendants of Viking hordes, Roman legions, African migrants, or Indian Brahmins.

DNA cannot tell you that your ancestors were Viking, simply that your ancestry came from a part of the world common to the Vikings based on historic facts.

To answer a specific question about individual ancestry, you need to supplement your mtDNA or Y chromosome genetic information with reliable historical records.  That means the tests can identify some groups and locations around world where people with similar genetic traits are found. But they are unlikely to pick them all.

Human migration shows historical evidence of Africans globally--Asia, Australia, India, China, England, Italy/Spain/Portugal, America (North, Central, South), Oceania, and (Pacific Islands) Polynesia Diaspora. The genetic comparisons are only as good as the company's database. "Some companies have 10,000 to 20,000 samples ... and that may not actually be a really thorough sampling of any particular location.

Each test examines less than 1% of the test-taker’s DNA and sheds light on only one ancestor each generation. A mitochondrial DNA assessment will tell you about only one of your 16 great-great-grandparents.

That means the tests can identify some of the groups and locations around the world where people with similar genetic traits are found. But they are unlikely to pick them all. People are lumped into very wide groupings such as Africans, East Asians, Europeans or Native Americans. There is a huge amount of genetic variation within each of those groups. Overall, racial groups are more like one another than they are different.

The gene-testing companies often make big and sometimes faulty assumptions in their comparisons.  Certain DNA sequences common in Native Americans are also routinely found in Asians. As a result, some people are informed they have Native American origins when their ancestors never migrated beyond Asia.

The genetic migratory history of the human species tells about the diversity of humans.  What about the newest evidence that Native Americans descended from Southeast Asian (Austronesian / Polynesian) people long before Clovis crossed the Bering Straits?  A genetic signature from Australasia – a region comprising Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea, and other islands in the Pacific Ocean – appears in the DNA of some Native American populations living in the Amazon rainforest and many Native Americans with African Blood.

   
People Classified as Native Americans Arrived in 3 Migrations to the Americas
  
The Eastern US, Pacific Southwest, Central and South American Native Americans are Black in color, not because of Africans imported as slaves, but from the first and second African Migrations to the Americas. The African-Diasporas in the Americas inherited Sub-Saharan African markers (“Senegal” + “Mali”) from those population sources. When the history books talk about Native American slavery, they are talking about enslaved Black Native Americans who were sent to Central and South America as slaves. Slave Records show more Black Native Americans were sold into slavery right here in this country than slave ships bringing Africans to the American shores in captivity.
 
Egyptian mummies, corn plants, cranial surgery, African hair jewelry, pyramids, Hebrew chants, and illustrated biblical events were found among the Choctaw and Chickasaw Tribes. Corn is not native to the Bering Straits. Who were the Black Californians (CALIFIANS - KHALIFIANS)? Christopher Columbus wrote of “Pirogues” or flat-bottomed boats with 2 masts from Guinea.  Natives who crossed the Bering Straits have 3 language groups compared to the overall 213 language groups of Natives present. The Cherokee language script is Egyptian. The Eskimo evidence does not support the Bering Strait crossing (Deloria,1997, 61)
 
References refer to a topic called “Evolutionary Prejudice.” In 1951, Thomas Lee from the National Museum of Canada’s funds were cut so that his findings could not be published. The scientific community was outraged at his findings. Artifacts were destroyed.  In 1989, a report stated that 5 South American archeologists had new data on the Clovis Folsom dates disputing in print dates. The South American archeologists were not allowed to publish their data that would have squelched the Bering Strait Theory and were threatened with losing research funds (Marder, 2005, 10). Current research published in the Science Magazine proves the different Native migrations.
  
  • The first Migration was 30,000 years ago via the Pacific Coast.
  • The second migration was 6,000 to 12,000 years ago via the Eastern Atlantic Coast.
  • The third migration was 3,000 to 5,000 years ago via the Bering Straits.
 
The third or final way people who have been classified as NATIVE AMERICANS arrived in the Americas was the Bering Strait Route from Asia to Alaska from 3,000 to 5,000 years ago. DNA Haplogroups and languages display proof for each migration. Today there are 213 Native Language Groups.  During the third migration, there were 3 language groups—Algonquin, Athabaskan, some Eskimo-Aleutian speakers.  The Haplogroup for full-blood Asians included the DNA markers A, C, D.
 
The second Native American migration occurred 6,000 to 12,000 thousand years ago from the Middle East and Europe--Basque Area. Remember the Middle East did not exist until the 19th Century. The countries considered to be the Middle East are in Africa.  Among archeological findings within the Native tribes, the following was found: Mummification (5,000-year-old mummy), cranial surgery, a chimpanzee, and pyramids.  The Choctaw, Chickasaw were part of the Cherokee Tribe and part of the Mandan (Manding) Tribe. Written accounts show they were related to the Hebrews. The Aztec Pictorial writing displayed Biblical Events.  Haplogroups A, B, C, D are displayed by the Native American Tribes.
 
Halogroup was X shows up in the first migration 30,000 years ago via the Pacific Southwest Coastal Route from the Pacific Southeast.  Haplogroup X exists in China, Japan, Melanesia, Polynesia.
 
In 1989, a report stated that at least 5 South American archeologists had new data on Clovis Folsom dates. The archeologists submitted their data and were threatened with losing their jobs.  The former research had already been accepted as part of history.  They were threatened with losing funding for their research and to pull back on the new findings. The logical reason is simple: Since modern Eurasian populations are predominantly haplogroup R, the Spaniards and Portuguese, French and British have a high proportion of hg. R in their genes. It was these people who discovered and conquered America so their admixture with the conquered American Natives would surely be reflected in contemporary Native Americans' Y chromosomes by the presence of typically European R haplotypes going back to Central Africa.  
 
El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Costa Rica, Bolivia and Venezuela Guinean (“Senegal” + “Mali”) ancestry.  The African-Diasporas in the Americas with heritage from Meso-, Central- & South-Amerindian populations inherited Sub-Saharan African markers from those population sources. Further, the referenced report supports the notion of Sub-Saharan African and Oceania components in North Amerindian tribes, which is the source of referenced indigenous ancestry, more specifically Lenni Lenapi, an Algonquin speaking people in Asia.


References

  
Imhotep, David.  The First Americans Were Africans. 2011.

Deloria, Vine Jr. Red Earth, White Lies:  Native Americans and the Myth of Scientific Face. 1997. 

Marder, William.  The Untold Story. Indians in the Americas. 2005.

Rice, Marsha. The Great White Lies; Dr. Walter Plecker, Eugenics, Melungeons, and Virginia Genealogy. 2013.

VanSertima, Ivan. They Came Before Columbus. 1976.
  

http://www.medicaldaily.com/dna-ancestry-tests-are-meaningless-your-historical-genealogy-search-244586

https://www.aaanativearts.com/mailbag-archive-2/will-a-dna-test-prove-my-blood-quantum-for-enrollment-in-the-seminole-tribe.html

https://beta.theglobeandmail.com/technology/science/flaws-of-dna-tests/article1085166/?ref=http://www.theglobeandmail.com&

http://www.rootsandrecombinantdna.com/p/amerindian-sidebar-southeast-asian-in.html

https://books.google.com/books/about/Indians_in_the_Americas.html?id=Obgdz8auwkMC
 
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-first-americans/