The Original Eve &
Personally I believe that Christianity practices a form of "Replacement Theology" because so called "authority figures" have deliberately mistranslated the Renewed Covenant--New Testament. The “Church” has been doing this since the second century CE. To mistranslate it to make it more Christian, Protestant, Catholic, Baptist, Lutheran, Methodist, etc. in viewpoint is wrong. The Bible is the word of God not the book of the organized “Churches.”
The earliest documentation of antiquity for me is the Bible. It has always been a personal quest to unearth the land and people behind the names and countries mentioned in Sunday school. Logically speaking, I never believed the Sunday School teacher that I was a "cursed" human being. Nor did I believe people took offense to Moses' wife being Black when Moses was Black himself. The big deal wasn't that she was "Black." The big deal was that she was from another country--Ethiopia. And I wondered how Mary could be a virgin if Jesus had an older brother named James although some same Joseph has an older son? The writings of the early church fathers point to the fact that James was the son of Joseph and Mary and the full biological brother of Jesus. Do you as a reader ask the same questions?
It is my personal belief that only lunatics would believe the following passages as justification for slavery. In our time it is the same lunacy that drove the invasion of Iraq, destruction of temples, and looting of artifacts from antiquity. What is the US trying to hide or destroy in the temples of Iraq? Who would come up with the following unless they were into "Replacement Theology?" Maybe some scriptures have just been mistranslated.
You must understand Abyssinia as a starting point. Abyssinia was an extensive territory in East Africa that is known today as Ethiopia. In ancient times Ethiopia extended over vast domains in both Africa and Asia. Classical historians and geographers called the whole region from India to Egypt, both countries inclusive, by the name of Ethiopia. They regarded all the dark-skinned and Black peoples who inhabited it as Ethiopia. (History of Ethiopia, Vol. I., Preface, by Sir E. A. Wallis Budge) "Homer and Herodotus call all the peoples of the Sudan, Egypt, Arabia, Palestine and Western Asia and India by the name of Ethiopians." (Ibid, p. 2) Herodotus wrote in his celebrated History that both the Western Ethiopians, who lived in Africa, and the Eastern Ethiopians who dwelled in India, were black in complexion, but that the Africans had curly hair, while the Indians were straight-haired. (The aboriginal Black inhabitants of India are generally referred to as the Dravidians.) "The Ethiopians were considered occupying all the south coasts of both Asia and Africa."
In ancient times theand Mediterranean Sea were called the Ethiopian Sea (Mare). Maps exist where the whole continent of Africa was labeled Libya. In ancient times Hispania is .
History of Ancient Civilization notes that the first civilized inhabitants of the Nile and Tigris-Euphrates valleys were a dark-skinned people with short hair and prominent lips. They are referred to by some scholars as Cushites (Ethiopians) and Hamites by others. The earliest cultures of Egypt and Mesopotamia grew from the Cushites and were not confined to the Near East. Traces of it have been found all over the world. Dr. W. J. Perry refers to it as the Archaic Civilization. Sir Grafton Elliot Smith terms it the Neolithic Heliolithic Culture of the Brunet-Browns. Mr. Wells alludes to this early civilization in his Outline of History, and dates its beginnings as far back as 15,000 years B.C. "This peculiar development of the Neolithic culture," "that Elliot Smith called the Heliolithic (sun-stone) culture, included many or all of the following odd practices: (1) Circumcision, (2) the queer custom of sending the father to bed when a child is born, known as Couvade, (3) the practice of Massage, (4) the making of Mummies, (5) Megalithic monuments (i.e. Stonehenge), (6) artificial deformation of the heads of the young by bandages, (7) Tattooing, (8) religious association of the Sun and the Serpent, and (9) the use of the symbol known as the Swastika for good luck. … Elliot Smith traces these associated practices in a sort of constellation all over this great Mediterranean / Indian Ocean-Pacific area. Where one occurs, most of the others occur. They link Brittany with Borneo and Peru. But this constellation of practices does not crop up in the primitive home of Nordic or Mongolian peoples, nor does it extend southward much beyond equatorial Africa. … The first civilizations in Egypt and the Euphrates-Tigris valley probably developed directly out of this widespread culture." (Outline of History, pp. 141–143).
CHRONOLOGY [100,000 BCE to 1 BCE]
100,000 BCE Africans make artful incisions in ocher, making Africa home
to the oldest images in the world.
50,000 BCE Africa suffers an extinction of 30% of its wildlife species.
28,000 BCE Climate deteriorated and the world entered the last major ice age. As a result of this, the Sahara reached up to the Ethiopian Highlands. Central Africa's mountain ranges were covered by ice flow. The River Nile, North of Khartoum, disappeared.
10,500-6000 BCE Ice Age Civilization in Africa survives intact and is centered in the Uplands of the Nile Valley (the Great Lakes Region of Central Africa). Diodorus claims that the Ethiopians (inclusive of all Africa, and not to be confused with modern Ethiopia) sent out, under one Osiris, a great army, "with the intention of visiting all the inhabited earth and teaching the race of men how to cultivate. Africans build the Great Sphinxes (supposedly originally two existed) and other astronomically-correct monuments and astro-geometrical structures all over the Earth.
8000 BCE Africans in the Congo basin practice brain surgery, and make
complex mathematical notations. Lake Chad almost filled its present drainage
basin [covering an area comparable in size to the state of Sudan], and spilled
southwest out the Benue River to the Atlantic.
8000-2000 BCE People from central Africa occupy the plains of
6000 BCE Africans settle in the islands of the Mediterranean and in
5500 BC Tissili and Tibesti Massifs are major centres of African culture,
to which communities across Africa trace origins. The harp is depicted in rock
art of the Sahara dating back over 7,000 years ago.
5000 BCE Massive volcanic explosion on the floor of the Albertine Rift destroys life and earthquakes cause highly cultivated (Ice Age Osirian) African civilization centered in the Great Lakes Region of Africa to decentralize amid war and inundation. Center of political organization in Africa moves northward to what is now Central and Northern Sudan, and Egypt.
1509 BCE Kushite armies engage in battles with Egyptian army. Kushites
defeat Egyptian forces and capture the whole of Egypt including the
coast. The Egyptians unable to free themselves from the Kushite army ask for
Moses' help. During the fighting at the fortifications around Saba, Kushite
Princess Tharbis demands marriage to Moses as condition for truce, after which
agreement the Kushite armies withdraw from Egypt. Moses returns to Egypt with
1489 BCE Moses flees from Egypt after killing an Egyptian.
1450 BCE Moses returns from exile and confronts Pharaoh Thutmosis III over the enslavement of Hebrews. Thutmosis and a division of the Egyptian army are drowned by the Red Sea as a result of unusual hydrolic phenomenon. Thousands of Kushites join the exodus with the Hebrews as they leave Egypt. Danaan, Ogham and other leaders also leave Egypt with their followers and go to Greece and Ireland.
1336-1334 BCE Smenkhkare (brother of king Tut) pharaoh of Egypt.
1334-1325 BCE Tutankhamun rules Egypt together with Queen Ankhesenamun. King Tut dies in 1325.
1295-1298 BCE Ramesses I is Pharaoh in Egypt.
1279-1213 BCE Reign of Ramses II, son of Seti I and Queen Tuya; Temples
at Abu Simbel, Amara West, and Aksha.
1212-1203 BCE Merenptah, son of Ramesses II is Pharaoh in Egypt.
The Sea People Appear
1210 BCE Egyptians and Pharaoh Merenptah record a major attack by Sea
1203-1197 Queen Tenosret and king Siptah are co-Pharaohs in Egypt.
1200 BCE Canaanite Phoenicians borrow the 27 (later 22) character
alphabet from the Egyptians. New waves of invasions to the Middle East destroy
the balance of order between Egypt, Assyria and the Hittites. The Sea People
destroy Ugarit an ancient Canaanite city hear the coast dating back to Third
Millennium. The Phrygians, a tribe from Thrace or Macedonia, moves into Anatolia
with the Sea People.
1197-1195 Queen Tenosret is Pharaoh in Egypt.
Trojan War. King Priam of Troy
and many Trojans are under siege by "Sea Peoples" including Myceneans,
Pelesgians, Acheaens, etc. Africans fight on both sides. Amazons fight on
Trojan side. Memnon, the African King of Ethiopian Persia (and brother to Emathion,
of Ethiopia (Arabia) arrives from Susa with 200,000 African troops to defend Troy and is
killed by Achilles.
1180 BCEUp to 12,000 Sea Peoples invade Libyan coast and about 20,000 attack Egypt.
961+ BCE Solomon begins his reign and marries the daughter of Pharaoh
Pasebkhanu II. Pasebkhanu sends his daughter off with 80,000 builders and 1000
945 - 924 BCE Shishak (Sheshonq) married to sister of the wife of King Solomon. Hadad the Edomite prince escapes to Egypt and finds refuge in Shishak’s palace. Lady Talipenes, Pharaoh’s sister-in-law, marries Hadad and gives birth to their child Genubath.
936 BCE Pharaoh Shishak invades Israel and attacks Jerusalem.
931 BCE King Solomon dies and is succeeded by his son Rehoboam amid
750-700 BCE Phoenician alphabet arrives in Greece. Oldest Greek text titled "the Ethiopians" is written. Homer (or other writers whose works are attributed to Homer), quoting "The Ethiopians" writes Odyssey and Hesiod, describing the Trojan War. Assyrian attacks destabilize Israel, Judah, and Phoenicia despite Kushite protection
716 BCE Death of Piankhy; he is buried at Kurru.
701 BCEShabataka deploys Kushite army under command of Prince Taharka to save Jerusalem under the Judean king Hezekiah.
700-500 Heavy Greek colonization of Sicily, Southern Italy, Southern
Provence, Andalusia and Cyrenaica, encircling Carthaginian territory.
690-664 BCE Taharka leads expedition to Spain. Coronation of Taharka at
Memphis (meets his mother at coronation after 18 years away from home). Taharka
adds to the temple at Jebel Barkal (690 BCE). Pharaoh Taharka is ruler of Libya
as well as Kush.
680-669 BCE Camels introduced to Egypt by Assyrian King Esarhaddon. Later camels became critical in trans-Saharan trade.
600 BCE Pharaoh Necho commissions Phoenician sailors to circumnavigate
Africa. The voyage takes 3 years but is successful. Phoenicians spend part of
the time in Southern Africa, long enough to grow and harvest food to complete
590 BCE Psammetichos II (595-589, Dyn XXVI) invades Kush to 3rd cataract,
and fights at the northern plain of Dongola seizing 4,200 African captives.
Pharoah Necho II escapes from Egypt and spends the rest of his life as a refugee
574 BCE Tyre falls to Nebchadnezzar, making Carthage the leading Phoenician center.
507 BCE First Carthagean treaty with Rome
498 BCE Hippocrates and Theron seize control in Syracuse and attempt to
throw Phoenicians off western part of the island.
487-485 BC Revolt in Upper Egypt.
480 BCE Carthagean Alliance with Persia fails to destroy Greeks, military defeat in Sicily as fleet is cut off by superior Athenian forces (Himera).
430 BCE Herodotus reaches Aswan. He writes The Histories
describing Meroe as Africa’s leading metropolis and industrial center.
410 BC Temple of Yahu (YHW) on Nile island of Yeb is destroyed.
Phoenicians in Spain join with Celtiberians to secede from Carthage, denying the
state important silver and copper revenues. Overland tin trade cut off.
Himilco's expeditions in the Atlantic. Hanno's expeditions to Morocco and
409 BCE Carthage initiates attempts to conquer Sicily. Hannibal, grandson
of Hamilcar, takes the fortified towns of Selinus and Himera by use of siege
405 BCE Hannibal Mago and hundreds of troops die in epidemic outside fortified town of Acragas. Himilco, his relative, takes over command, is defeated by force out of Syracuse, and has supply disrupted in naval action.
380 BC 30th Dynasty founded by Nekhtnebf I, last African dynasty of Egypt
367 BCE Dionysius attacks Carthaginian base at Lilybaeum -- stopped when
fleet defeated by warships under Hanno the Great.
360 BCE Hanno the Great crucified following unsuccessful attempt to usurp
360-342 BC Reign of last Egyptian Pharaoh Nectanebo II of the XXX Dynasty
350 BCE Carthage now leading Western power, is allied with Egypt and Kush.
342-333 BC Second Persian conquest of Egypt; The last Pharaoh of Egypt
Nectanebo II (Dynasty XXXI) flees to Kush.
334 BCE Carthage makes peace with the Greek empire and with the Lagos
monarchy in Egypt.
332 BCE Siege and Defeat of Tyre and Gaza by Alexander the Great of
Macedonia; rout of Persians; Conquest of Egypt and end of Persian domination
welcomed by Africans (Egyptians, Kushites and Carthageans). Greek expeditions in
many parts of Africa; Greek language and culture introduced.
331 BCE Foundation of Alexandria
327 BCE At Makaranda in Samarkand, Persia, during a drunken rage Alexander murders Cleitus Niger, the African King of Bactria, foster brother of Alexander and commander of the "royal squadron" of the Greek/Macedonian armies under Phillip and Alexander.
323 BCE Alexander dies
323-282 BCE Ptolemy I: satrap of Egypt, disciple of Aristotle, moved
remaining Jews of Judea to Alexandria & founded Museum in 323, Library in 307,
ruled Syria 319-314, in 305 named Soter (Savior), founds Ptolemaic Empire of
309 BCE Agathocles sails force of 14,000 to Africa. Carthage meets with
40,000 foot, 1000 cavalry and 2000 chariots under Bomilcar and Hanno. Greeks are
victorious, Carthage losing 3000 on the battlefield, but city is impregnable.
Siege of Syracuse continues.
300 BCE Massive African migration southward ahead of the expanding
Sahara. Pytheas explores the Atlantic, Euthymenes the coasts of Africa.
275 BCE Manetho: Egyptian High Priest wrote "History of Egypt" in Greek.
263 BCE First War between Carthage and Rome begins over Sicily.
250 BCE Synagogues: places to study Torah (Mosaic Law) appear
247 BCE Hannibal born in Carthage, later to become general of
245 BC Babylon and Susa fall to the Egyptian armies of Ptolemy III.
243 BC Ptolemy III is recalled from Syria by a revolt in Egypt; he ceases
his martial interests and his support of the Egyptian army.
237 BC Carthagean army under Hamilcar Barca, 33, invades the Iberian
Peninsula. Hamilcar Barca re-conquers Spain.
228 BC Carthaginian General Hamilcar Barca falls in battle. Command of
his army in the Iberian Peninsula passes to his son-in-law Hasdrubal.
238 BC Rome captures Sardinia then Corsica from Carthage
204-180 BC Reign of Ptolemy V Philometor. Inscription of Rosetta Stone.
202 BCE Carthaginan attack on Roman convoy which has run aground re-opens the war. Hannibal defeated at Zama to end Second War with Rome.
80-51 BC Reign of Ptolemy XII, `the Piper'
73-71 BC Romans finally crush the slave revolt of Spartacus in Southern
56-34 BCE Artavazd II, Armenian King, playwright, murdered by Antony &
50 BCE Diodorus terms Kush as the home of Egyptians, and of civilization
itself. Reigns of Kandakes Amanirenas and Amanishakheto.
49 BCE Queen Cleopatra VII is deposed by her brother Ptolemy XIII
48 BC Pompey flees to Egypt where he is assassinated. Alexandrian War and
Julius Caesar seeks rule of Egypt. Cleopatra reinstated as Queen of Egypt.
51-30 BC Reign of Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XV, initially as co-regents.
Then she rules alone.
31 BC Octavian is victorious at the battle of Actium. Cleopatra and
Antony are defeated.
30-28 BC Roman conquest of Egypt under Octavian; suicides of Cleopatra
29 BC Romans invade Kush and ambush the Kandake (Candace) Amanirena.
Her body guard defeats the Roman legions and Kushites sack southern Egypt and
set fire to Thebes.
27 BC-14 AD Reign of Roman Caesar Augustus.
25 BCE Octavian Augustus gives Mauretania (in addition to Numidia to
which he had been restored in 31BC) to Juba II as a client kingdom. Juba's
kingdom includes modern Morocco and Mauretania. [Juba II married Cleopatra-Selene,
daughter of Cleopatra and Mark Anthony. Juba and Cleopatra-Selene's son Ptolemy
was murdered by his cousin Caligula emperor of Rome. Their grand son Drusilla II
married Agrippa I of Judah].
22-19 BCE Augustus has temple built at Dendera on the Nile.
21-20 BCE Kushites obtain reinforcements from central Africa and to avoid
defeat Roman Legions at Premnis sue for peace. Augustus Caesar establishes
standing army as result of strain of war with Cush.
4-0 BCE The Garamantes to the west of the Nile, and the Beja (Blemmys) troops in Kush, as well as several other communities revolt (prompted by Rome) against ruling Kushite Dynasty. Jesus Christ and his family live in Egypt.
NOTE: The Original Eve was reconstructed by Richard Neave of Manchester, England, from the cast of the skull uncovered in the Qafzeh cave in Israel in 1969. The cast was provided by the Natural History Museum of London.