Clyde Winters:  Now You Know

Black folks in the US have an oral history which seems to always include a Cherokee Grandmother with long black hair. Ebony Magazine got into the act a few years ago to reassure its readers they were only 2% Native American without having done any research. Christopher Columbus, in 1492, after reaching America referred to Native Americans as Negroes. Europeans often referred to indigenous populations as Negroes during colonization of the global map because of skin color. Most Native American slaves were considered Negroes before the African Slave Trade. Between 2 and 5.5 million Natives were shipped to Central and South America between 1492 and 1880. Imported African slaves amounted to 313,000. Just look at Mexico. The Moors invaded Spain, Italy, and Portugal in AD711 and stayed 800 years. Then Spain invaded Mexico in 1518. When White folks are passing for white, they say their parents told them they were Native Americans because they didn’t want to claim Negro blood.  So, now we know, and you are about to know if you already don’t know.

International Journal of Innovative Research & Review (2015 Vol. 3 (1) January-March, pp. 21-29)

History books write about the origin of the Y-chromosome in Native Americans as the result of a European admixture, but the results are NOT supported by the phytogeography of haplogroup R1. The results do not correspond to the former territories of European colonies in America having the highest population densities. Location of the paternal clade matches former centers of Black Native American occupations and forced migration of Mongoloid and Black Native Americans into the American Southwest. R1 among Mongoloid Native Americans is the result of a Mongoloid-Black Native American admixture within groups already living in North America when Europeans arrived on the East Coast. (Malhi, et al, 2008, Ripan et. al., 2008; Zegura et. al, 2004). Arnaiz-Villena et. al., (2006) and other researchers reported that Sub-Saharan Africans were among the first Americans. Spanish explorers found Sub-Saharan Africans already in the New World when they arrived (Alcina-France, 1985, Arnaiz-Villena et. A, 2006, Winters, 1977, 2011b, 2013, 2014, 2015).

Rafinesque (1833) and Quatrafages (1899) mention a number of Pre-Columbian Black American tribes including the Yamasee. The Black Native Americans lived throughout North America. They were especially prominent in the Mid-West, Northeast and Southeast US. (Gallay, 2002, Winters, 2010, 2011A, 2011b). The presence of Sub-Saharan Africans in North America suggests an African origin for the presence of 6-DNA R-M173 among Native Americans. The results from the high frequency of haplogroup R1 among African populations across the African Continent, and especially in West Africa (Gonzalez et. al., 2012; Winters, 2010, 2011B).

The most predominant Y-chromosome of Native Americans in North America is R-M173 which is found in the Northeastern and Southwestern parts of the US along with mtDNA haplogroup X (25%).  Both haplogroups are found in Africa but are absent in Siberia.  Varying frequencies of Y-chromosome M-173 occur in Africa and Eurasia. Only between 8% and 10% of M-173 is carried by Eurasians, 82% of the carriers of this Y-chromosome are found in Africa (Winters, 2010, 2011b).

The presence of R-M173 is found among many American Native groups. The Algonquian Groups: Ojibwe (79%), Chipewyan (62%) Seminole (50%), Cherokee (47%), Dogrib (40%) and Papago (38%). (Malhi et. al., 2008). Amerindians carry the X haplogroup (hf). Amerindians and Europeans hg X are different (Person, 2004). Haplogroup X has also been found throughout Africa and thought to be of African origin. Skeletons from Brazil dating between 400-7000 BP have the transition np 16223 showing Africans have taken the Xhg to the Americas in ancient times. speakers. The Niger-Congo speakers formed a significant population in Upper Egypt and the founders of the 18th dynasty. Malians settled along the Northeastern shore of the US.

The pristine form of R1*M173 is found only in Africa and in low frequencies in Eurasia. The Eurasian R haplogroup is characterized by R1b3-M269. The M269 derived allele M207/M173 background showing African male contributions to Eurasia. French and Spanish males carry this y-haplogroup because of the Moors and Niger-Congo. This goes back to the expedition of Mausa (King) Abubakari across the Atlantic Ocean in 1310. Mausa made many trips and had 25,000 - 80,000 men sailing with him to the Americas from Mali. Europeans learned about America from their travels along the West Coast of Africa. Vasco da Gama is said to have found out information concerning the West Indies from Ahmad b. Majid, of West Africa (Bazan, 1967).

Much of what is now Georgia was a stronghold of Black Native Americans who lived predominately from the Smoky Mountains in North Carolina southward as far as St. Augustine, FL. A vast majority of Native Black Americans lived in California, or along the Eastern seaboard in North America and belonged to many Confederations including the Muskhogean and Algonquin. Some of the tribal names include Choctaw, Tuscarora, Secolan, Tamaraw, Nanticoke, Kashita (Kauche-te), and Yamasee as just a few of the tribes. They belonged mainly to the Muskhogean and Algonquin Confederacies.

Due to Indian slavery in North America, the Black Native American populations were absorbed by the larger Sub-Saharan African slave populations. The Black American Native heritage and land rights were taken by the US Government. Ancestry did not matter. All enslaved people were assigned to the status of former African slave. As the Indian slave trade gave way to the African slave trade by the 1700s (by then 300 years old) Native American identities became obscured through time. In the Colonial Project to eliminate the landscape of Indians, these mixed-race people simply became known as “Colored” people through bureaucratic erasure of public records. In some cases, such as in Virginia, even when people were designated as Indians on birth or death certificates or other public records, their records were changed to reflect “Colored” headed by Walter Plecker. It is referred to as “Paper Genocide.”  Census takers determined a person’s race by their looks and these people became simply Black. Today they are classified as Freemen of the Cherokee and other Five Civilized Tribes.

Remember the migration was FROM Africa – not TO Africa!